Reverse Osmosis (RO) is a separation method that is suitable for a broad range of applications, especially when salt and/or dissolved solids need to be removed from a solution. It is among the commonest types of water therapy.
According to เพรสเชอร์เกจดิจิตอล , water therapy consultant at Allmech, leading South African producer of boilers and provider of water treatment parts, there are several components to be thought of when choosing an RO system: the customer’s capacity requirement (i.e. water usage), the day by day manufacturing capability of the system, and the percent rejection for specific contaminants within the source water.
“Beyond this, RO vegetation require correct maintenance and care to make sure they operate optimally and to increase their lifespan,” she says. “Aside from regular maintenance, the easiest way to guard a RO plant is by pre-treating water, which reduces the pressure on the RO membrane – a costly element. It additionally helps to keep away from issues like scaling and bio-fouling.”

Common Issues with RO Plants

“Factors that may have an effect on a RO system’s efficiency embrace temperature, working stress, again pressure, the equilibrium effect/TDS creep, percent recovery, and, in fact, the RO membrane’s permeate production and percent rejection scores,” says Hough.
The commonest issues in RO vegetation embrace:
• Fouling: occurs when contaminants accumulate on the membrane floor, successfully plugging the membrane. There are many contaminants in municipal feed water that are harmless for human consumption, but massive sufficient to shortly foul (or plug) an RO system.
• Scaling: when particles are deposited on a membrane, causing it to plug. As certain dissolved compounds turn out to be extra concentrated, scaling can happen if these compounds exceed their solubility limits and precipitate on the membrane floor as scale. Scaling calculations are often solely based on the silicate concentration within the feed water.
• Biofouling: reduces actual membrane efficiency via microbial era in a biofilm that varieties on the membrane surface.
• Chemical damage: on a RO membrane, this means a better permeate flow and poorer quality permeate water. Dosing of oxidant brokers, such as chlorine or hypochlorite, can reduce efficiency and ultimately result within the failure of the RO membranes. Use of aggressive cleaners can even cause chemical injury.
• Mechanical harm: can occur when a system is pressurised too rapidly, damaging the RO membrane components. One of the most clears signs of damages on a RO membrane is the dearth of salt rejection capabilities. There is also very often an increase of permeate move fee.
Pre-treatment may help to avoid these issues, and Hough says there are various choices obtainable.
Pre-treatment Options

“When choosing a pre-filter, customers should at all times look for a verified effectivity rating subsequent to the micron measurement on the filter’s technical knowledge sheet,” says Hough.
• Multi Media Filtration: A multi-media filter is used to assist forestall fouling of a RO system. This type of sediment filtration is right for a pre-treatment course of to any reverse osmosis system helping to make sure lengthy life of the RO membrane components. A well operated multimedia filter can take away particulates down to 20 microns. A multimedia filter that makes use of a coagulant addition can take away particulates down to 10 microns.
• Micro Filtration: The filters used in microfiltration have a pore measurement of approximately zero.1 micron. Bacteria and suspended solids are the only element that can be eliminated through microfiltration.
• Antiscalants and scale inhibitors: There are many chemical compounds that can be utilized as antiscalants and dispersants to enhance the operation of RO. Antiscalants are a family of chemical substances designed to inhibit the formation and precipitation of crystallized mineral salts that form scale.
• Softening by ion exchange: A water softener is a filtration system that removes hardness-causing calcium and magnesium minerals from water by way of a process referred to as ion trade. Standard water softeners are cation change units. Cation exchange includes the replacement of the hardness ions with non-hardness ions.
• Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Filtration: Activated carbon removes residual chlorine and chloramines by a chemical response that entails a transfer of electrons from the surface of the GAC to the residual chlorine or chloramines. The chlorine or chloramines find yourself as a chloride ion that’s now not an oxidizer.
“It’s also essential to wash the RO membrane often,” says Hough. “This entails high and low pH cleaners to take away contaminants from the membrane. We address scaling with low pH cleaners and organics, while colloidal and biofouling are treated with a excessive pH cleaner.”

Allmech presents the whole range of pre-treatment and RO membrane upkeep options for RO vegetation, together with filtration techniques, softeners, antiscalants, chemicals and other consumables.
“At Allmech, we’re wanting ahead to rising this part of our business in 2022 and past, leveraging our expertise in all issues associated to water therapy. We even have a boiler division and we stock a complete range of Runxin valves, so we’re well positioned to be a one-stop shop for anybody needing a water therapy or boiler specialist, and we’re anticipating a busy 12 months ahead,” Hough says.

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